Energy quanta exchanges in the qm view

The interactive animation below represents basic energy exchanges that explain a wide variety of important phenomena, the physical causes of which have been a mystery (e.g. "inertia" and "relativistic" phenomena).  The animation is based on the premise that light (i.e. photons), and energy quanta in general, move through a quantum medium, qm, with a constant, absolute speed, ca, and therefore have variable speeds, cra, relative to systems of mass/energy that are moving through the qm.  It concerns the rates at which energy is exchanged on microscopic scales (e.g. within atoms) and on macroscopic scales (e.g. between spaceships or stars).

Orthodox physics theory is based on a belief (and law of physics) that light (i.e. photons) has a constant speed, c, through empty space and always has this same speed through all inertial reference frames regardless of the motions of the reference frames relative to one another.  This strange and incredible constant light speed, c, is consistent with the experimental evidence.  It is the basis for extensive scientific theory, in spite of the fact that orthodox physics theory cannot explain how this constant light speed is possible.

The quantum medium view (a.k.a. qm view) explains how it is possible.  It explains the physical causes of light speed, c, which are the same physical causes of a variety of other important, mysterious phenomena.  For example, it explains why two observers (who are moving relative to one another and assume light speed, c) can agree on their relative velocity but cannot agree on whose atomic clock is running slower or whose standard meter is shortened by their relative motion.  This is explained in detail at (e.g. page 17).  If you learn about the qm view, you will see that it has a significant bearing on physics theory and our understanding of our universe.  The animation helps understand the qm view.  What the animation represents, how it works, and what it shows are explained below.

         va = .0
Select system velocity, va
 Amount of redshift and blueshift
   rearward  transverse  forward 
crna=(1−va)  (ca) 1.0000
crxa=(1+va)  (ca) 1.0000
rv (see last row) 1.0000
async21 (s) 0.0000
ep12=rv/(1−va) (PHz) 1.0000
ep13=rv/(1+va) (PHz) 1.0000
aqmva=acos(va) (°) 90.0000
ep145 (PHz) 1.0000
epavg (PHz) 1.0000
rv =(crna*crxa)1/2 =(1−va2)1/2
00.0 s

What the animation represents:  The animation represents a "diamond formation" (or system) of spaceships (subsystems).  (This large-scale example helps explain and understand the animation, but the system and subsystems could also be an atom containing electrons and a nucleus.  The large- and small-scale examples both involve the exchange of energy between center and outer subsystems.)  To simplify the explanation, the five spaceships are floating in a common plane in remote space and are motionless relative to one another.  The outer ships are spaced symmetrically, 1 light-second, , from the center ship, as shown.  This pattern is automatically maintained by radar ranging between the ships and by thrusters to correct any misalignment.  This will be the system's natural pattern, just as atoms, molecules, and other systems of mass/energy have preferred natural configurations. The ships will be numbered, with ship 1 at the center and 2 through 5 as shown above.

An important part of the animation is the pattern of photons traveling between the ships.  Every two seconds, according to the atomic clock aboard ship 1, a light signal is sent to the outer four ships, which instantly transmit return signals that always arrive back in two seconds according to the ship 1 clock.  Similarly, every two seconds on their atomic clocks, ships 2 through 5 receive and send light signals.  These photon pulses are represented in the animation by dots moving between the ships.  To see how this works, click the "Run" button.  (Clicking "Stop" will stop the animation, and other controls are explained below.  If photons get out of sync at ship 1, click stop and re-run.)

About the quantum medium, qm:  According to the qm view, all mass/energy (including photons, electrons, quarks, and all other "particles" of the Standard Model) consists of oscillations and systems of oscillations of the qm, which contain energy.  The qm is not comprised of mass/energy.  Without oscillations, it has no energy, and no apparent existence that we can detect.  Although the qm is present everywhere, its existence is not obvious.  However, its consequences are abundant and obvious when they are understood.  This animation is part of the strong theoretical evidence of the qm, and constant light speed, c, is part of the extensive empirical evidence.  The short, gray, vertical lines on the animation are at rest in the qm, so we can tell if the diamond formation is moving through the qm.  All the photons in the animation will be moving with a speed of 1 ca relative to the gray marks at rest in the qm.

Absolute and virtual units of distance and time:  The animation shows why the physical units of distance and time in the diamond formation (and on Earth) moving through the qm are virtual units that can differ a little or a lot from the absolute units (that occur when the diamond, or any other system, is at rest in the qm).  The primary unit of distance in the qm view is the absolute light-second, LS, which is the distance that light travels through the qm in one absolute second, 1 sa (where 1 sa is a second according to atomic clocks at rest in the qm).  By definition, it takes 299,792,458 absolute meters, ma, to equal 1 LS. 

The animation shows why motion through the qm slows all clocks and other processes in the diamond system.  It shows why the absolute time duration of a virtual second, s, in the diamond system, and also the absolute distance of a virtual light-second, , in the diamond, are not fixed units of time and distance.  They both depend on the system's absolute velocity, va, which can be changed by clicking the desired va on the control panel.  The unit of va is ca (i.e. LS/sa).

The scales on the black borders around the diamond formation show that the "field of view" of the animation is about 2.2 LS square at the diamond system distance.  This field of view shows the diamond formation as we would see it from a great distance using a telescope on a space station having an absolute velocity <.002 ca (as Earth appears to have).  If the diamond system starts moving, we can follow it with our telescope, without changing our absolute velocity.  By changing the velocity, va, of the diamond system through the qm, we can see what effect this has on the transfers of energy within the system, and what physical changes occur in the system as a result of the changes in energy-exchange rates.

How the animation works:  We can start by moving the diamond through the qm with a velocity va=.1 ca.  To do this, click the ".1" velocity on the control panel and then click "Run."  The field of view follows the diamond through the qm, and we can see the gray reference lines, at rest in the qm, moving across the field of view with a velocity of .1 ca (because the gray marks take 10 seconds on our clocks to move 1 LS along the top and bottom scales).  You can use the simple stopwatch at the bottom of the control panel to check the speed of the qm reference marks past the scales.  You can also time the photons moving between the ships, and will find that the rate of round-trip energy exchange between the ships slows as va increases.  Even when va is only .1 ca, we can see some of the effects of this absolute motion of the diamond system.

A primary effect is that the speeds of light in the system are no longer isotropic.  The speed of the photons moving from ship 1 to ship 2 is now .9 ca, and the speed from ship 1 to 3 is 1.1 ca.  These are the minimum and maximum speeds of light relative to the system, crna and crxa, as shown on the first two rows of the data. The square root of the product of crna and crxa is the physical change ratio, rv, for the system, which is displayed on row 3 of the data.  This ratio specifies many things about the system.  For example, it specifies the absolute speed of light in the transverse direction of the diamond.  And it specifies the slowing of all processes in the system, including the atomic clocks and the longer time for all the photons emitted at ship 1 to travel to the other ships and return.  Other phenomena caused by the system's absolute velocity will be more apparent at higher velocities.  [ Note: When scrolling back and forth between text and animation, a small piece of tape placed on your screen frame next to scroll bar helps return to the text.]

What the animation shows:  If you increase va to .6 ca, you will see that rv decreases to .8 since rv also equals sqrt(1−va) = .8.  Ratio rv is dimensionless.  It is the ratio of the rate of round-trip energy exchange in a system with velocity, va, to the rate when the system is at rest in the qm.  Therefore, the atomic clocks on the ships evolve at only .8 times their at-rest rate, so that 1 virtual second (1 s) specified by the clocks is the same time duration as 1.25 absolute second (1.25 sa) specified by an atomic clock at rest in the qm.  However, observers on the ships continue to detect that the light signals arrive and depart every 2 s because the light signals, moving between ship 1 and ships 4 and 5 now require 2.5 sa for the round trip because their speed relative to the diamond system is only .8 ca.

Similarly, between ships 1 and 2 and between 1 and 3, the round-trip travel time for the photons is the same 2.5 sa because the diamond system contracted to maintain an isotropic rate of round-trip energy exchange between the ships, and otherwise maintain the observed relationships between the ships exactly as they were when at rest in the qm.  The radar ranging systems continue to measure the same 1  spacing between the ships.  This will always be true, regardless of the value of va.  Observers on the ships are unable to detect the foreshortening of all things, and the slowing of all processes, in the diamond system that are caused by increasing the system's absolute velocity, va. 

The observers' bodies experience the same changes in energy-exchange rates and the resulting foreshortening and slowing in all their subsystems.  Similarly, on Earth we do not detect the constant, very small changes in all mass/energy systems that are caused by our constantly changing velocity, va.  This is why the many experiments to detect a light-propagating medium have been unsuccessful and why the law of light speed, c, arose and led to relativity theory, which resulted in the belief that our universe has no particular configuration of its mass/energy at any particular time because every different reference frame has different units of distance and time.  The qm view shows that universal units of distance and time do exist and that all observers can agree on the units and that our universe is not as strange as light speed, c, and relativity theory have led people to believe.

The animation shows that a change in va changes the speeds at which energy quanta move through (i.e. relative to) the diamond system, which changes the rates of all processes in the system, and changes the foreshortening of the system (to maintain the balanced, va=0 conditions observed within the system).  These changes (which are not observed within the system) exactly account for the observed inertia of mass/energy, the speed of light, c, and a wide range of other important, perplexing, observed phenomena that have not been understandable without understanding these changes.  It is the perplexing, easily observed phenomena that provide physical evidence of the qm.  For example, observers aboard the spaceships may wonder why so much energy is needed to change their velocity if, as orthodox physics theory states, the spaceships and observers do not change when their velocity is changed.  The animation above and discussion below show that any change in a system's velocity results in changing the pattern of the system's internal energy, and that a force and work are required for the energy-pattern change.  This exactly accounts for the work necessary to change the velocity of any system of mass/energy, and this will be discussed below the following gray box.

This webpage is crucial
Because this animation page is essential for understanding the qm view, we will take time to list (in this box) the information that must be acquired, so readers can be looking for it.

It is shown above that changing a system's absolute velocity, va, changes the patterns of energy quanta (e.g. photons) moving within the system.

For any diamond-system velocity, va, that the reader selects, the reader should be aware of the following:

  The different speeds relative to the system of the photons moving in different directions through the system.
     Rows 1 and 2 of the data table show the minimum and maximum speeds of photons through the system.
  The constant 1 ca (i.e. 1 LS/sa) speed of the photons moving through the quantum medium.
  The blueshifts of the photons moving in "forward" and "transverse" directions in the system.
  The redshifts of the photons moving in the "rearward" direction in the system.
  The "physical change ratio," rv, calculated and displayed on data row 3.
      rv is a simple function of va (as shown on the last row of the data table).
  rv specifies the rate of round-trip energy exchange in the system relative to the rate when va=0 and rv=1.
The animation shows that when va is increased, this increases the photon travel distance through the qm, which increases the round-trip travel time.  This slowing of the energy exchange rate in the system slows the evolution of everything in the system, including the clocks, which continue to show a 2 s round-trip photon travel time between the ships, regardless of va.  For example, when va=.9 ca, photons moving between ships 1 and 4 have an absolute velocity relative to the system of rv ca or only .4359 ca (because the photons must also have a .9 ca velocity component in the va direction) and they therefore take (2 LS / .4359 ca) = 4.5883 sa to move the 2 LS distance through the system while moving 4.5883 LS through the qm.  The photons moving from ship 1 to 2 have a velocity relative to the ships of only .1 ca, and they take 4.359 sa to move the .4359 LS distance between the ships.  And photons moving from ship 2 to 1 are moving with an absolute relative velocity of 1.9 ca, and they take only .2293 sa, which results in a round-trip travel time of (4.359 + .2293) = 4.5883 sa, or (4.5883 sa * .4359) = 2 s in the system.
  rv specifies the relative rate of all processes and physical standards of time in the system (e.g. atomic clocks).
  rv specifies the relative size of the system (and everything in it) along lines parallel to va.
  (1/rv) specifies the relative mass/energy of the system (and all subsystems having rest mass).

The following will be shown below this box.
  Why the virtual synchronization of the clocks by observers(c) aboard the ships results in the absolute asynchronication of clocks, which is shown on data row 4. (This absolute clock asynchronization, and the clock slowing, and the system foreshortening, all of which are shown by the animation, play a role in the illusion of light speed, c.)
  Why moving a clock within (i.e. relative to) the diamond system changes the rate of energy exchange within the clock during the move, which changes the rate of time specified by the clock.
  A detailed analysis of a clock's round trip compares the qm view and relativity theory explanations for the observed clock slowing.  The reader should obtain a clear understanding of the two explanations, which predict exactly the same clock slowing but for fundamentally different reasons.  The qm view explains the physical causes for the clock slowing.  From the above discussion, the reader should be familiar with these physical causes.  The physical causes also explain why the relativity explanation for clock slowing (i.e. relative motion) is an illusion that can make correct (and also incorrect and paradoxical) predictions in spite of being wrong about the causes of clock slowing.
  A detailed analysis showing why the mass/energy of a system depends on its absolute velocity, va.  The analysis provides additional evidence that the qm view is correct, because it adds to the variety of phenomena for which the qm view provides the physical causes.
  The animation shows that, in spite of large changes in the absolute phenomena occurring in the diamond system, the observers(c) in the system do not detect any of the changes.  The radar ranging and radio systems are constantly measuring and verifying their virtual 1  separation and are constantly sending and receiving signals having the same virtual speeds and oscillation frequencies.
  The more thoroughly the reader understands the analyses and explanations on this page, the more obvious it will become that the qmv is very likely the correct explanation of the various related phenomena.  A good gauge of the reader's comprehension is whether or not they are able to clearly explain the information on this page to someone having a knowledge of college undergraduate physics and a familiarity with special relativity theory.

Clock asynchronization and slowing:  Another hidden phenomenon that the animation shows is the asynchronization of clocks in systems moving through the qm (e.g. Earth).  When va=.6 ca, we can see clearly that the time on a clock aboard ship 2 will lag behind the time on a clock on ship 1 if the clocks are virtually synchronized (e.g. by observers on ship 2 who use a telescope to see the time on the ship 1 clock and set their clock to read 1 s later to allow for the assumed 1 s time for the light to travel from 1 to 2).  We will refer to ship 1 as s1, and refer to a clock on s1 as c1, and will use the same shorthand for s2 and c2.  The animation shows that it takes much longer than 1 sa for light to travel from c1 to c2, and that this results in c2 being retarded relative to c1.  You can time the travel time for photons moving from c1 to c2 to estimate the amount of the absolute asynchronization.  (A simple rule for determining this asynchronization between clocks in the same inertial reference frame moving through the qm is shown on the left side of page 12 of this website.)  For any va of the animation, the asynchronization of c2 relative to c1, async21, is shown on row 4 of the data table.

Some readers may wonder if c1 and c2 will agree if they are brought together.  To investigate this question, we will consider a specific case when va=.6 ca.  And rather than transporting c1 to c2 or vice versa, we will synchronize a "traveling" atomic clock, ct, located at c2, with the time on c2 and then transport ct to c1 (via small spacecraft) for comparison with c1.  The spacecraft and ct will have a speed of .000001 ca (about 300 ma/sa) relative to c1.  (We can ignore the accelerations of ct because they can be low and insignificant.)  The travel time will therefore be (.8 LS / .000001 ca) or 800000 sa, and the physical change ratio for ct will be rv=sqrt(1−.599999^2) or .800000.749999.023438.415525.889399, which is .000000.749999.023438.415525.889399 more than rv for c1.  Therefore, as ct travels to c1, ct will advance (.000000.749999.023438.415525.889399 * 800000 sa) or .599999.218750.732420.711519 s more than c1, and is therefore only (.6−.599999.218750.732420.711519) s or .000000 781249 267579 288480 s retarded relative to c1 when it arrives at c1.

Today's physicists may have mixed reactions to the results of this simulated trip by ct.  They can accept the idea that ct arrived at c1 retarded relative to c1 because the observed slowing specified by the qm view is the same amount of slowing specified by relativity theory.  But they will attribute the slowing to the relative motion between ct and the diamond formation because the law of light speed, c, and relativity theory lead one to believe that relative motion causes an observed clock to run slow.  Experiments in which clocks have relative motion during round trips result in the slowing of the traveling clock when compared with a non-traveling clock after the trip.  Relativity theory predicts the correct amount of this slowing.  The term "observers(c)" will be used to designate observers who believe that the law of light speed, c, relativity theory, and relative motion correctly explain the slowing of moving clocks and other "relativistic phenomena." 

Physicists know that relativity theory says that when two clocks pass one another, the observers(c) with the clocks will observe the other clock running slow.  The qm view shows why these conflicting observations (i.e. both clocks running slower than the other), which represent a paradoxical and physically impossible situation, occur.  The qm view shows that the conflicting observations are of virtual phenomena that are much different from the absolute phenomena that occur in the qm and that are partly responsible for the observed, virtual phenomena.

The "relative motion" explantion for clock slowing:   We will now examine why relative motion can appear to account for the .000000.781249.267579.288480 s retardation of ct when it arrives at c1.  First, observers(c) aboard s1 determine that the transport of ct to c1 takes exactly 640000.6 s for the following reason.  If the trip starts when c2 and ct read 0 s (which event observers(c) with c1 can see or detect via a light signal from c2 and simultneously set c1 to read 1 s), the trip will end 800000 sa or 640000 s later when ct arrives at c1, which reads 640000.6 s due to the .6 s absolute asynchronization.

Second, aboard s1, s2, and the spacecraft, the .000001 ca absolute relative velocity between c1 and ct is observed to be a (.000001 / (1−(.6 * .599999)))  or  .000001.562498.535157.623289.728165 c relative velocity.  This is based on an equation which specifies the observed relative velocity between two bodies moving along parallel lines in terms of their absolute velocities. This equation is explained and/or derived at,, and elsewhere at  The equation specifies the virtual relative velocity, vctc1, of ct relative to c1, observed by observers(c), in terms of the absolute velocities, vc1a and vcta of c1 and ct, as follows.  vctc1=(vc1a−vcta) / (1−(vc1a*vcta))  This virtual relative velocity results in a relativistic clock slowing factor of (1 − sqrt(1−.000001.562498.535157.623289.728165^2)) or 1.220700.836185.604327.060293E-12, which, when multiplied by the 640000.6 s travel time according to the observers(c), is .000000 781249 267579 288480 s.  This is exactly the retardation of ct relative to c1 explained above by the qm view.  It is the result of the increased rate of round-trip energy exchange within ct during the trip to c1, and the absolute asynchronization of the clocks in the diamond frame.

How will ct be affected by a return trip to s2 if the trip is again made with a velocity of .000001 ca relative to the diamond frame so that va=.600001 ca for ct and the travel time is 800000 sa?  When ct arrives at s2, will it be twice as retarded relative to c2 as it was to c1?  We will first determine what the qm view predicts.  During the trip to c2, ct will have a physical change ratio of rvct=sqrt(1−.600001^2) or .799999.249999.023436.584471.  This is .000000.750000.976563.415528.798105 less than c2's rvc2=.8.  Therefore, during the 800000 sa trip, ct will advance .600000.781250.732423.038484 s less than c2.  However, c2 is .6 s retarded relative to c1, so ct will appear to lose only .000000 781250 732423 038484 s to c2 during the return trip.  Therefore, during ct's round trip, the observers(c) will see ct lose a total of .000001 562500 000002 326964 s relative to c2.

We will now calculate the amount of the retardation according to relativity theory.  The observed time duration of the 800000 sa trip is (640000 −.6) s because c2, which specifies the end time of the trip, is .6 s retarded relative to c1, which specifies the start time.  (Note that throughout the diamond system all observers(c) agree that ct travels from s2 to s1 in 640000.6 s and from s1 to s2 in 639999.4 s.)  The observed, virtual relative velocity, vctc1, between clock ct and the diamond system is vctc1=(.600001−.600000)/(1−(.600001*.600000))  or  1.562501.464845.123292.303086E-6 c. This virtual relative velocity results in a relativistic clock slowing factor of (1−sqrt(1−.000001.562501.464845.123292.303086^2)). This factor, 1.220705.413822.323090.694856E-12, times the 639999.4 s observed, travel time specifies a relativistic clock slowing of .000000 781250 732423 038484 s, which results in a total round-trip slowing of .000001 562500 000002 326964 s.

The total retardation specified by relativity theory is exactly the same as the retardation specified by the qm view.  In addition to specifying the retardation mathematically, the qm view explains the phenomenon in terms of logical physical causes.  These physical causes also explain a wide range of other phenomena.  The qm view shows that behind observed, virtual, relativistic phenomena are much different absolute phenomena.  We will briefly discuss another phenomenon that has been perplexing and is explained by the qm view, and where the animation helps explain it.

Calculating a system's increase in mass/energy due to its absolute velocity:  When va is greater than zero, the photons emitted from ship 1 toward 2 are blueshifted upon emission, and photons emitted in the opposite direction are redshifted upon emission.  (Because the colors of the photons in the animation are difficult to see, the colors are also shown in the boxes to the left of the animation.)  These blue and red shifts are also not detected aboard the ships because the oscillations of the blueshifted photons are redshifted back to the emission frequency when absorbed, and the oscillations of the redshifted photons are blueshifted when absorbed. 

If we let the energy of the photons traveling between the ships at rest in the qm be 1 petaHz (a mass/energy slightly above that of visible light photons), we can then calculate the mass/energy of the photons for any velocity, va, of the diamond system.  For example, for photons moving from s1 to s2, the energy, ep12, equals 1*rv/(1-va) PHz because the oscillation frequency of the photon source is reduced to rv times its at-rest frequency and then the photons are blueshifted by an amount 1/(1-va) during emission.  The resulting mass/energy is displayed on data row 5.  Similarly, photons moving from s1 to s3 are redshifted upon emission and have a mass/energy, ep13, of 1*rv/(1+va) PHz, which is displayed on data row 6.

You may also have noticed that when va>0, even the photons moving between s1 and ships 4 and 5 are blueshifted.  This is because these photons must have a component of their 1 ca velocity through the qm be equal to va so they "keep up with" the diamond system's motion through the qm.  Therefore, when va=.6 ca, all energy quanta moving in a transverse direction within the diamond system have a .6 ca component of their 1 ca absolute velocity in the direction of va, and a transverse component of rv or .8 ca.  Therefore, the angle, relative to velocity vector, va, at which the transverse photons are moving through the qm is aqmva=arccos(va) degrees, as shown on row 7 of the data.  As va approaches 1 ca, this angle approaches zero.  If the angle is small, then the blueshift of the transverse photons is almost as much as the blueshift for the p12 photons.  For any angle, aqmva, the energy of a transverse photon (which we will designate ep145) is 1*rv/(1 minus the component of va in the angle aqmva direction) or rv/(1-va*cos(aqmva)) or rv/(1-va*cos(arccos(va))) or rv/(1-va^2) or rv/rv^2 or simply 1/rv PHz.  This energy of transverse photons is shown on row 8. 

When va=.6 ca, rv=.8, and ep145=1/rv PHz or ep145=1.25 PHz, the transverse photons are the only photons having the same mass/energy as a photon moving in the opposite direction.  However, every photon in the diamond system has a mass/energy that together with the mass/energy of a photon moving in the opposite direction equals the mass/energy of two transverse photons.  For example, the sum of the energies of p12 and p13 is 2.5 PHz (as you can see in the data) and their average is 1.25 PHz.  Therefore, when va=.6 ca, the total mass/energy of all the photons (and all other mass/energy) in the diamond system is 1/rv or 1.25 times their at-rest mass/energy.  (This is explained further on pages 22 to 24 at  This change in the mass/energy of a system or body is in exact agreement with experimental evidence.  It is part of the large and diverse body of evidence supporting the qm view. 

The reader should realize that, regardless of a change in va, and the resulting changes in the mass/energy and geometry of the ships, and the changes in the rates of round-trip energy exchange and all processes throughout the diamond system, observers aboard the ships who assume constant light speed, c, will be unaware of any of the changes.  They will continue to measure constant light speed, c, in their system.  They may wonder why so much energy (in the form of fuel) is needed to change the velocity of their system.  They will be unaware of the source of the huge internal energy in their system and that this energy acts like a giant flywheel and that changing the pattern of the internal energy moving through their system can require a large amount of work, even when the change in the pattern is small.  The observers will be unaware that this huge internal energy is the cause of the system's observed "inertia." Their velocity change will also result in observed "relativistic" changes in the rates of pulsars 500 light-years away.  The observers(c) must realize that the pulsar rate changes cannot be caused by anything at the pulsars (or in the 500 ly of space).  We hope that readers who conclude that the causes must involve changes in the diamond formation will consider the qm view explanation.

Is the qm view needed?:  Some readers may be thinking that orthodox physics theory and experimental evidence show that an observed increase in mass of a body can be caused by increasing the relative velocity between the body and the observer, and that we do not need a qm to do this.  Pages 25 and 26 (and elsewhere at explain why the observed mass increase of a moving body can appear to be due to relative motion between the observer and the body.  The qm view reveals the causes of this relative-motion illusion.  It distinguishes between an absolute change in a body's mass due to a change in the body's velocity through the qm, and a virtual change in the body's mass due to a change in the observer's velocity through the qm (which changes the standards of time, distance, and mass in the observer's system, which changes the observer's observation of the body's mass, but causes no change in the body).  This explanation is too long to include here (it is explained on the Equations page and elsewhere at, but the explanation involves the clock-slowing, the system-foreshortening, and the mass-changing phenomena demonstrated by this animation.  When it is understood that the causes of observed absolute phenomena (e.g. a slow observed clock due to a low energy-exchange rate in the clock's system) also cause observed virtual phenomena (e.g. a slow observed clock due to a low energy-exchange rate in the observer's system), it is clear that the causes are very likely the real causes occurring in nature.

All the phenomena shown in the animation have been hidden, and according to orthodox theory, they do not exist.  Then why are we so confident that these hidden phenomena actually occur?  Because they are the logical consequences of a plausible premise and they explain clearly, and unambiguously, and in exact agreement with observations, the physical causes for a wide variety of important observed phenomena that orthodox theory cannot explain.  In addition, the qm view maintains the basic aspects of physical reality (i.e. universal distance, time, and mass/energy) on which all observers can agree.  Universal distance, time, and mass/energy are not possible with orthodox theory because observers in different inertial frames have different physical standards of distance, time, and mass/energy, which all observers(c) believe are equally good.  Also, over many years, our confidence increased substantially as we searched for flaws in the qm view (as have others) and found none.  We continue to search and encourage others to search because we are confident that most physicists will find the qm view far more plausible than theory based on light speed, c.  Currently, the qm view shows why orthodox theory is flawed, but orthodox theory does not show why the qm view is flawed.  Until someone can show where the qm view is flawed, in our opinion it is sound theory.

If the qm view is more plausible, more explanatory, more self-consistent, and less paradoxical than theory based on light speed, c, then why is it not being used so people can understand the physical causes of all the phenomena it explains?  Or, why are physics teachers and students unaware of how light speed, c, can be an illusion?  The primary reasons are that the qm view is not simple (as the animation indicates), and it is "different" from the modern physics based on light speed, c, which we all learned.  Most are certain that light speed, c, is correct and that theory disagreeing with it must be wrong.  (The animation would have been easier for physicists in the late 1800s to understand and accept before the "law" of light speed, c, arose and was taught to generations of students.)

Over the years, the qm view has been rejected by various organizations, editors, reviewers, and others.  The "reason" has always been that the qm view contradicts light speed, c, and/or the related orthodox theory.  Never has there been any other reason for the rejection.  Good reasons would have been specific inconsistencies with scientific evidence, or internal inconsistencies or paradoxes, or inconsistency with what science has taught us about nature.  The history of scientific evidence has taught us that all observed phenomena very likely have logical physical causes.  The qm view explains the physical causes of all the many phenomena it predicts, including light speed, c, and "relativistic" clock slowing and mass increase (as shown in detail above and at the three links below).  Conversely, orthodox theory based on light speed, c, (i.e. spacetime theory) does not identify the physical causes of the phenomena it predicts.  We think that rejecting an apparently sound theory simply because it disagrees with existing theory says much about how questionable ideas and theory can, and do, become established and difficult to challenge.  A purpose of the animation is to help explain the physical causes of light speed, c, explained in detail at the following webpages.

Light speed measuring experiment and the qm view
Simple example of multiple causes of light speed, c
Constant light speed, c, in the qm view (YouTube video)

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